To carry out a cladistics analysis, there are seven steps that I detail in specific pages:

  1. Select the sample.
  2. Select the characters.
  3. Code character values.
  4. Choose a transformation (evolutionary) cost.
  5. Choose the outgroup
  6. Use a clever algorithm.
  7. Consensus trees.
  8. Assess the robustness of the tree.

At each step 1 to 6, there are several possible choices. Items 7 and 8 should give ideas about the statistical significance of the result. The reading of the trees in terms of character evolutions and groupings in sub-branches is also another tool that should be used to decide whether and at which step the analysis should be performed again and differently.

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